Meaning of Leadership :
Leadership is a process ,which provides direction to the people and influence them for the achievement of specific goal.It is also an activity in which one person leads another for working effectively and efficiently.
According to the Marry Parker Follet, “The power of leadership is the power of integrating. The leader stimulates what is best in us he unites and concentrates what we feel only groupingly and shatteringly. The person who influences me most is not he who does great Deeds, but he who makes me feel that I can do great deeds.”
Leadership has been defined by different persons in different ways .
1). Dubin, R,″Leadership is the exercise of authority and making of decisions.
2). Koontz and O’Donnell, Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
3). Allford and Beaty, Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a group of followers voluntarily, without the use of coercion.
4). George R. Terry, Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.
5). Peter Drucker, Leadership is not making friends and influencing people, i.e., salesmanship it is the lifting of man’s visions to higher sights, the raising of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations.
Features of Leadership :
- Ledaership indicates the ability of an individual to influence others.
- It tries to bring change in behaviour.
- It is the willingness of people to follow that makes person a leader.
- Inspire people to achieve common goal.
- It is a continuous process.
- It show relation between leader and followers.
- Helps in inspiring and guiding the employees – leadership managers can inspire and guides the subordinates. A good leader influences the behaviour of an individual in such a manner that he voluntarily works towards the achievement of enterprise goals.
- Co-operation between members – Effective leadership increases the understanding between the subordinates and the management and promotes co-operation among them
- Needed at all levels of management – Leadership plays an important role in management at required at all level of management. It inspire them to achieve common goal.
- Improve productivity – It also helps management in productivity by changing the mind of people and inspire them for common goal.
It Acts as a Motive Power to Group Efforts –
Leadership serves as a motive power to group efforts. It leads the group to a higher level of performance through its persistent efforts and impact on human relations.
Leadership Qualities of a good leader
Some of the qualities of a good leader are as follows:
1. Good personality.
2. Emotional stability.
3. Sound education and professional competence.
4. Initiatives and creative thinking.
5. Sense of purpose and responsibility.
6. Ability to guide and teach.
7. Good understanding and sound judgment.
8. Communicating skill.
10. Objective and flexible approach.
11. Honesty and integrity of character.
12. Self confidence, diligence and industry.
5. Different Types of Leadership Styles :
Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Advantages and disadvantages exist within each leadership style. It helps management to achieve their common goals by inspiring people.Some companies offer several leadership styles within the organization, dependent upon the necessary tasks to complete and departmental needs.
A laissez-faire leader lacks direct supervision of employees and fails to provide regular feedback to those under his supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees requiring little supervision fall under the laissez-faire leadership style. This leadership style hinders the production of employees needing supervision. The laissez-faire style produces no leadership or supervision efforts from managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and increasing costs.
The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the input of others. Managers possess total authority and impose their will on employees. No one challenges the decisions of autocratic leaders. This leadership style benefits employees who require close supervision. Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this leadership style.
Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or punishments to team members based on performance results. Managers and team members set predetermined goals together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals. The manager possesses power to review results and train or correct employees when team members fail to meet goals. Employees receive rewards, such as bonuses, when they accomplish goals.
The transformational leadership style depends on high levels of communication from management to meet goals. Leaders motivate employees and enhance productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility. This style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet goals
Participative leadership values the input of team members and peers, but the responsibility of making the final decision rests with the participative leader. It boosts employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision-making process. This style meets challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period.